The rumen is “the heart and the engine” of ruminant energy metabolism and any rumen disorder can dramatically impair ruminant health and production. Rumen disorders are common on farm, are costly and pose a severe problem in early lactating cows. There are frequently multiple causes for rumen disorders and diagnosis is not easy. However, it […]
Background The decision to calve heifers earlier is essentially an economic one based on the aims of reducing rearing costs (principally feed and housing) and bringing forward the age at which milk can be sold. A calving age of 23 to 24 months achieves these aims without compromising lifetime milk production. An average daily growth […]
Pig farm managers are well aware of the new performances allowed by modern sows. They are also witnessing management changes in sow nutrition to par with the corresponding metabolic and colostrum/milk production evolutions. What is less commonly realised is that the litters born to these modern sows are also composed of modern piglets. A bibliographic overview shows that newborn and suckling piglets’ management is about to drastically specialise.
The innate immune system acts as an alarm that senses danger in the form of infection and/or cell damage, and helps to initiate recovery and repair processes. Integral to innate immune cell activation are germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors that sense danger in the form of exogenous microbe-associated molecular patterns and endogenous damage-associated molecular patterns. Innate […]
In 2013, aquaculture production in Brazil reached 387,7 MT. Since 2003, production is growing at an average rate of 9.3% (FAO, 2014). Aquaculture production is spread to all geographical regions in Brazil, but the Northeastern accounts for more than ¼ of the total (Fig. 1). There are three major aquatic animal groups farmed in the […]